15 Types of Construction Vehicles (Inforgraphic)

Find the list of 15 leading Construction Vehicles here. I have prepared this data based on the top vehicles that is used in Construction field and explain with an infographic and table.  Construction vehicles are inseparable parts of any construction activity. These vehicles do various kinds of earthmoving, building, removals, and other related activities at construction sites. These vehicles operate on the basis of mechanics that establishes the relation between input force applied and output generated. This enables these machines to do the work of hundreds or thousands of humans in a fraction of the time.

I have created a list of different types of Construction Vehicles that are used at commercial places. These vehicles are frequently used at farms, building roads & highways, construction buildings etc.

Until the 19th century, humans and horses used to draw and operate this heavy equipment. With time, these vehicles underwent extensive mechanization and automation. Many improvements were effected in the designing & operation of the vehicles. Today, many of them are entirely automated and operate on the basis of extensive artificial intelligence. Many others are operated by humans but the work is entirely mechanized.

Importance of Construction Vehicles

  • The advanced levels of automation & mechanization of construction vehicles help to complete complex construction activities within the stipulated deadlines. It also eliminates human involvement in risky activities, thereby reducing the chances of accidents and fatalities.
  • The use of the correct construction vehicle, besides ensuring timely completion o the project, also leads to cost efficiency and makes sure the completed project is safe and of the desired quality. And completion of projects within or before the deadline raises the brand value of the construction company, thereby fetching more clients.
  • The construction vehicles equipped with the latest technology are highly fuel-efficient and consequently, the utmost environment friendly. They thus help the company to reduce carbon footprints. And these vehicles don’t suffer major wear & tear during their long functional lives. Thus, maintenance costs are not high.

A wide range of construction vehicles is used to complete the various aspects of a construction project.

The 2021 Top Construction Vehicles list provides a quick overview. Below, we will take a look at 15 such types of vehicles.

Excavator

Excavators

As the name suggests, these vehicles are normally used for excavation activities like digging holes, large foundations for erecting buildings, trenches, etc. The vehicle consists of a cabin that is built upon a rotating platform. A bucket and a boom complete the equipment.

This is how hydraulic excavator works

Excavators are an integral part of the construction activities of mining, construction, demolition, dredging, lifting heavy materials, etc.

Bulldozer

Bulldozers

These are among the most widely-used construction vehicles. These are very strong vehicles and are highly dependable to carry out the demolition and digging activities. They can work on almost all kinds of land surfaces. The front-fitted blade can remove huge quantities of soil and other forms of debris. The engine is extremely powerful that provides exceptional dragging capacity to the bulldozer. They can remove various types of debris and facilitate road construction for both military & civilian uses.

Front Loader

Front Loaders

A front loader is a vehicle that facilitates earth removal. They are also known as scoop loaders or bucket loaders. Their large wheels allow the vehicle to tackle any kind of land surface. Their mechanical “arm” is highly flexible and contains a bucket in front that scoops up debris and material and moves them around. Mainly used to remove dirt and debris, front loaders may also be used for carrying construction equipment like steel bars, bricks, pipes, etc. Front-loaders also play an important role in clearing roads in countries where there is heavy snowfall.

Backhoe

Backhoe

Also known as JCB, Backhoe is another commonly-used construction vehicle. It has several uses in construction activity. In keeping with its name, hoe services are provided by the rear part of the vehicle, while the frontal part has a loading bucket. Trenches can be dug using this vehicle. Also, materials can be lifted, loaded, and unloaded by using the bucket in the frontal part.

Dump Trucks

Dump Trucks

Dump Trucks are widely used in construction sites. As their name suggests, these vehicles are mainly used to carry debris and disposable material from construction sites to be dumped at a pre-designated place.  Besides dumping, these trucks can also carry a wide range of materials to the construction sites.

Dump trucks can be Off-road that are used mainly in mining sites to carry a huge amount of debris from locations that don’t support the construction of paved roads; transfer dump trucks that are trucks with a separate trailer that pulls the truck; and side dump trucks that dump large quantities of debris from their sides, thus maintaining an even balance.

Dragline Excavators

Dragline Excavators

In case you are looking to excavate to a much greater depth, then a dragline excavator will do the job for you. There is a digging bucket that is attached to an extra-long boom, using cables. During such activities as construction of ports, underwater excavations, sediment removal from water, etc. when the need is to dig fairly deep, construction companies take recourse to dragline excavators.

Graders

Graders

Graders are extensively used in road construction activities. The long blade that lies in front of graders helps in flattening rough surfaces by crushing small debris. This helps in preparing a flat base for creating the concrete road. Graders also help in creating foundation pads that precede the construction of large buildings.

Trenchers

Trenchers

These are multipurpose construction vehicles. Its main advantage is its versatility. Trenchers find wide usage in digging large trenches, laying of pipelines, setting up drainage channels, etc. The army uses trenchers to create trenches for possible use during wars. Trenchers can be wheel trenchers that have a metal wheel that cuts through roads to provide access to utilities underneath; chain trenchers that can cut very deep trenches, and micro trenchers that cut small & very specific trenches in urban locations.

Cranes

Cranes

Among the construction vehicles with the maximum utility, cranes have pulleys attached via strong cables that allow them to lift weights that would need several hundred humans to be lifted. Besides lifting heavy loads, they also assist in the horizontal movement of materials. For any type of construction activity, cranes are an inseparable part as they facilitate lifting objects weighing several tonnes or more.

Crawler Dozers

Crawler Dozers

These are construction vehicles that come with a high degree of power and strength. These tracked vehicles come with a range of blades that are installed in their frontal part. These blades assist in moving a wide variety of materials from one place to the other. They help to clear mining areas of debris and also while laying roads. They can also be used to smoothen up the rough edges of roads while constructing sharp bends.

Wheel Tractor Scrapers

Wheel Tractor Scrapers

These vehicles help in earth moving. The scrapers attached to the vehicles work towards flattening the soil surface. There is a blade towards the rear part of the vehicle, and also a hopper that collects the scraped soil. As the vehicle moves, the blade cuts through the soil and deposits it in the hopper, sending it via the attached conveyor belt. Once the hopper is filled to capacity, the vehicle dumps the soil in the designated area before resuming the excavation work.

Compactors

Compactors

Soil compaction is highly necessary for preventing soil erosion. This soil erosion can, in turn, lead to cracked pipelines, leakages, slab cracks, and more such damages. These damages can prove to be very costly for the public exchequer and also cause immense inconvenience to the local population. That’s why a compactor is such a critical construction vehicle that is required irrespective of the size of the construction.

Bale-wrapper compactors prepare compact bales, trash compactors control the quantum of trash, smooth roller compactors facilitate road construction, rammer compactors help to dig trenches, and so on. But every type of compactor is an integral part of any construction project, depending on the nature of the construction.

Forklifts

Forklifts

Forklifts find usage in construction sites, warehouses, hypermarkets, etc. These powerful vehicles can carry a huge amount of weight in the platform attached to the frontal part of the vehicle, and move the objects to the desired location. Forklifts come in various sizes and with various capacities, depending upon the nature of the project and the amount of weight that they would have to carry. Besides lifting and lowering the forks, the operator can also tilt it to one side of the forks need to accommodate more loads and prevent them from slipping & falling.

Tower Cranes

Cranes

Tower cranes are fixed structures. They are used to lift large and very heavy equipment like concrete blocks, metallic frames, etc. to the required heights. These are primarily used while constructing huge buildings like factory sheds, multistoried apartments, etc. where there is a need to place very heavy construction materials at great heights. Along with the tower, there is a movable arm attached, called the jib. There is another arm on the other side of the vehicle; this arm is called the counter jib. It balances the jib as the jib lifts the weights. There is a controlling cabin from where the operator operates the vehicle.

Pavers

Pavers

Pavers are used during road construction activities. Asphalt is poured into a large bucket attached to the vehicle. The paver vehicle keeps laying this asphalt on the surface of the road in an even and planned manner. It also does some primary compaction work, though a compactor does a much more efficient job of it. Once the asphalt is distributed on the surface, a roller flattens the asphalt, thus resulting in even distribution.

Below is an Infographic of Construction Vehicles, hope you will like it, feel free to share it on social sites!

15 types of construction vehicles infographic scaled

15 Types of Construction Vehicles

Sl. No. Construction Vehicles Name Weighing Capacity
1 Excavator 21 – 24 metric tons
2 Bulldozer 30 – 36.3 metric tons
3 Front Loader 1 cu meter to 40 cu meter
4 Backhoe 7291 lbf | kN
5 Dump Trucks 60.6 tons
6 Dragline Excavators 10000 – 13,000 tons
7 Graders N/A
8 Trenchers 4 fT3. 0.11 m³
9 Cranes 15 – 18 metric tons
10 Crawler Dozers 90 to 108 tons
11 Wheel Tractor Scrapers 35 – 38 m³
12 Compactors 7 to 10 ton
13 Forklifts 54 – 90 ton
14 Tower Cranes 16.3 – 19.8 metric tons
15 Pavers 20 – 22 pounds per square feet

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